Hippocampal Formation

Learning Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal Formation

Thousands of hippocampal neurons are born in adulthood, suggesting that new cells could be important for hippocampal function. To determine whether hippocampus-dependent learning affects adult-generated neurons, we examined the fate of new cells labeled with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine following specific behavioral tasks. Here we report that the number of adult-generated neurons doubles in the rat dentate gyrus in response to training on associative learning tasks that require the hippocampus.


Temporal Discontiguity

Temporal Discontiguity is Neither Necessary nor Sufficient for Learning Effects on Neurogenesis

Some, but not all, types of learning and memory can influence neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Trace eyeblink conditioning has been shown to enhance the survival of new neurons, whereas delay eyeblink conditioning has no such effect. The key difference between the two training procedures is that the conditioning stimuli are separated in time during trace but not delay conditioning. These findings raise the question of whether temporal discontiguity is necessary for enhancing the survival of new neurons.


Platelet PLA2 Activity

Cognitive Training Increases Platelet PLA2 Activity in Healthy Elderly Subjects

Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are ubiquitous enzymes involved in membrane fatty acid metabolism and intracellular signaling. Recent studies have shown that PLA2 subtypes are implicated in the modulation of pathways related to memory acquisition and retrieval. This study investigated the effects of cognitive training on platelet PLA2 activity in healthy elderly individuals. Twenty-three cognitively unimpaired older adults were randomly assigned to receive memory training or standard outpatient care only.


Long-term Effects of Training

Long-term Effects of Cognitive Training on Everyday Functional Outcomes in Older Adults
Following are research results compiled by the ACTIVE Study Group:


Previously reported data from the ACTIVE study showed that each of 3 cognitive interventions improved the cognitive ability it targeted and these improvements were maintained through the 2 years of follow-up.  However, the effects of cognitive training on everyday function have not been demonstrated yet.


Cognitive-Motor Intervention

Benefits of Cognitive-Motor Intervention in MCI and Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease

To evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-motor program in patients with early Alzheimer disease (AD) who are treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI).


Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (12), mild AD (48), and moderate AD (24) (Global Deterioration Scale stages 3, 4, and 5) were randomized to receive psychosocial support plus cognitive-motor intervention (experimental group) or psychosocial support alone (control group).


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